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Ag/AgCl bioelectrodesAg/AgCl biological electrode


Biological electrode made by P-Flex®
Biological electrode made by P-Flex®

Ag/AgCl biological electrode made with P-Flex® boasts an overwhelmingly low resistance to electrodes due to its copper wiring and has an advantage in that parts mounting is possible. In addition, our inkjet technology has more advantages in the following;

  • Can be manufactured at a reasonable price in a short period of time because the mold is only for Ag/AgCl paste applying.
  • Can be produced in medium and small batches.
  • You may choose between PET film or polyimide film substrates.
  • Available for material ratio adjustment of Ag/AgCl paste and prototyping for iontophoresis.
Example of Layer constitution

What is a biological electrode

The biological electrode detects the electric the bioelectric potential such as ECG(electrocardiogram), EEG(electroencephalogram) or EMG(electromyogram).
In addition, "Generally, nickel silver or silver electrodes are used for electrode derivation of ECG or EEG though, it is recommended for monitoring to use Ag/AgCl electrodes used stably over a long time, and having low polarizing potential between the skin and the electrodes."1.

*1 Yoji Ishiyama, The Performance required for the sensor for biomedical signal measurements, The Japanese journal of medical instrumentation, Vol.80,No.1(2010), p.21.

Myoelectric potential measurement by
biomedical electrodes using silver/silver chloride electrodes

What we have prepared here is a set of sensors connected to our P-Flex® biomedical electrodes.

Biomedical electrodes are used to measure EMG, ECG, and EEG.
Here are ones we have coated with silver/silver chloride.

This is currently connected here, forming a + (plus), - (minus), and N electrode combination.

Let's go ahead and take an EMG measurement.
If you take a look at the screen, you can see that it is in a relaxed state with no movements. When you move, you can see that there is a repetition of contraction and relaxation.

This is how our P-Flex® biomedical electrodes can be used to take EMG measurements.




ECG(electrocardiogram), EEG(electroencephalogram), EMG(electromyogram)

Medical devices, human-computer interfaces, robots

For general and technical inquiries, please contact us from the form below;

About P-Flex®

P-Flex® is a single-face flex PCB manufactured using the Pure Additive™ method. Conventionally, electronic circuits have been manufactured by applying a method known as lithography, in which a thin metallic sheet is first applied to the board surface, and then unrequired sections are melted away.


The Pure Additive™ method (*) developed by Elephantech is a concept completely opposite to what had been used until now, using a proprietary manufacturing technology that prints metal nanoparticles with inkjet only on the necessary parts and grows metals by electroless plating technology.
(* Patent No. 6300213)

By reducing the amount of metal, liquid waste and man-hours, we can lessen manufacturing costs and shorten the lead time.
Elephantech will continue to reduce its environmental burden and contribute to the achievement of SDGs.

P-Flex® manufacturing specifications
Substrate Transparent heat-resistant PET film: 50 µm thick, 125 µm thick
PI (Polyimide) film: 25 µm thick
Line width / spacing 200/200 μm min., 200/150 μm min. (option)
Hole diameter 0.5 mm min.
Outline-pattern spacing 0.3 mm min.
Copper foil thickness 3 μm (please consult us if you require a thickness of more than 3 µm)
Panel size 180 × 270 mm max.
Wiring layer Single-sided
Soldermask coating UV inkjet printing (green) (waterproof graded soldermask coating is possible for special items)
Transparent, black and white soldermask coatings by silkscreen printing for PET substrate are also under development and may be available upon request.
Legend printing UV inkjet printing (white)
Surface finish Oxidation prevention treatment, Electroless nickel gold plating (option)
Outline cutting / Hole drilling Laser cutting
Stiffeners When specifying the thickness of the connector part, film stiffeners can be used to adapt to connectors of 200 µm or 300 µm in total thickness.
Component mounted parts and such can be adapted by using FR4 stiffeners of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.6mm in thickness.
Other stiffeners, electromagnetic wave shield film, double-sided tape and such are also available.
Inspection Visual inspection + opens/shorts test
contact us

Company information
Name Elephantech Inc.
Establishment January 2014
Address 4-3-8 Hatchobori, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0032, Japan
Capital JPY 310,000,000
Representative Shinya Shimizu, CEO
Business description Development of printed electronics manufacturing technology and provision of related services